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Reading History Timeline 2
By Courtney Cummings

  1. 1916

    Gray Oral Reading Test

    "A test is developed by William S. Gray. This test is used by reading teachers to classify students’ reading behaviors while they are actually reading. "

  2. 1918

    Specialized Instruction by Schmitt

    "Schmitt devised the first instructional method especially aimed at non readers, a technique involving use of intricate, highly wrought phonics stories. "

  3. 1920

    The Fernald Technique

    "The first reading clinic opened by Grace Fernald at UCLA. Fernald later became known for her procedures she developed to work with severely delayed readers. "

  4. 1922


    "The first textbook devoted to remedial reading is published. “Reading Ability: Their Diagnosis and Remedies” by Clarence T Gray."

  5. 1930s

    Language Experience Approach

    "Language Experience Approach is used to encourage student’s own language for reading text, making it easier and more natural to learn."

  6. 1950s

    Training Reading Specialists

    "Many universities began training reading specialists and the launch for the International Reading Association occurred. LEA incorporated into early primary grades. "

  7. 1965

    Title I Reading Programs

    "United States Congress passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act which is the origin of Title I Reading Programs."

  8. 1970s


    "Federal initiatives fostered several literacy efforts incl uding the National Right-to-Read Program. Public Law 94-142 (Education for Handicapped Children Act) passed, strengthening educational requirements for all students. "

  9. 1990s

    Reading Recovery

    "Program is developed to help beginning readers who experience reading delays."

  10. 1990s

    Whole Language Movement

    "Whole language and literature based instruction (already important in reading programs) becomes fairly influential in delayed reading instruction. "

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