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The evolution of medicine 4
By Marine Fragoso

  1. 10000 BC

    Trepanation practice

    "First surgical practice known and done since the Neolithic. Trepanation is a surgical procedure consisting in piercing the cranial box of a circular hole, in order to access the brain for an operation or to relieve hypertension."

  2. 1600 BC

    Egyptian Papyrus Edwin Smith

    "One of the oldest known medical document purchased by Edwin Smith in Thebes in 1862. It was written, or more likely copied, around 1500 BC, under the sixteenth and seventeenth dynasties, to the Second Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt."

  3. 460 BC


    "Greek doctor who originated the development of rational medicine."

  4. 4 century BC

    Charaka Samhita

    "Foundamental document of Indian Ayurvedic Medicine."

  5. 5 and 3 century BC

    Huangdi Neijing

    "Oldest Chinese Medicine document: The Classic of Yellow Emperor’s Internal Medicine"

  6. 131 to 201


    "Greek doctor practicing in Rome, who will complete the Hippocrates theory of moods. This theory will be accepted until the 16th century. Beginning of public health in Rome."

  7. 325 to 403


    "Greek doctor practicing in Constantinople. He compiles the ancient medical texts in his collection in 70 volumes: Collectanea medicae."

  8. 4th century

    First hospitals

    "The bishops of the Byzantine Church (Antioch and Caesarea of Cappadocia) founded the first hospitals."

  9. 1509 to 1590

    Ambroise Paré

    "Considered the father of modern surgery. He publishes his works in French and not in Latin as the tradition dictated."

  10. 1628

    Discovery of blood circulation

    "By the British doctor William Harvey"

  11. 1630

    Beginning of the use of quinine

    "In Europe, to cure malaria."

  12. End of 17th century

    Invention of the microscope

    "By the Dutchman Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek who discovers spermatozoa in 1677 and bacteria in 1683."

  13. 1777

    College of Pharmacy

    "Louis XVI creates the College of Pharmacy in France: apothecaries take the name of pharmacist and get the monopoly of the sale of drugs."

  14. 1784

    Revealing the mechanisms of respiration

    "Following the research work from the French Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier."

  15. 1796

    Discovery of vaccination

    "By the British doctor Edward Jenner."

  16. 1796

    Foundation of homeopathy

    "By the German doctor Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann."

  17. End of 18th, beginning of 19th century

    Birth of psychiatry


  18. 1816

    Invention of the stethoscope

    "By the French doctor René Laennec."

  19. 1818

    First blood transfusion

    "Achieved by the British Obstetrician James Blundell."

  20. 1846

    First anesthesia with ether

    "Achieved by the American dentist William Thomas Green Morton."

  21. 1867

    Invention of the antiseptic

    "By the British surgeon Joseph Lister."

  22. 1885

    Development of the rabies vaccine

    "By the French chimist Louis Pasteur."

  23. 1892

    Discovery of viruses

    "By the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovski."

  24. 1895

    Discovery of X rays


  25. 1899

    Patent filing of acetylsalicylic acid

    "Which has been named “aspirine”"

  26. 1910

    Discovery of Salvarsan

    "A derivative of arsenic that destroys the bacteria responsible for syhilis. By the German physician Paul Ehlrich."

  27. 1915

    Development of Dakin liquor

    "An antiseptic set up by the British chemist Henry Drysdale Dakin and the French surgeon Alexis Carrel."

  28. 1921

    Discovery of insulin

    "By the Canadian doctor Frederick Banting and his team."

  29. 1928

    Discovery of penicillin

    "By the British doctor Alexander Fleming."

  30. 1951

    Birth of the scintigraphy


  31. 1967

    First heart transplant

    "In South Africa, by Christiaan Barnard."

  32. 1972

    Scanner design

    "By the British Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield."

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